Monday, October 1, 2018

Run PowerShell Core in Docker on Raspberry Pi

I've recently started playing around with the latest Raspberry Pi 3 B+ along with a PoE HAT, which is an amazing little piece of kit. I've been trying to offload a bunch of workloads that are currently being served by an aging Windows 10 PC whose primary role is a media PC. This very same PC used to run Windows Media Center on Windows XP, before I turned to XBMC/Kodi and then Plex. It's well over a decade old, but still going strong. Although, now that I think of it, the only thing that's probably still original is the case, since I've replaced the motherboard, videocard, disk drives, and power supply over the years.

Since I've worked with Docker in the past (most recently with a failed attempt to move the Skype Optimizer to a Docker container), I thought I'd try running Docker on the Raspberry Pi.

My home networking setup in the basement furnace room. My Raspberry Pi is circled in red.
I've been pretty successful in getting things working efficiently on Docker.  At the time of writing this post, I've got the following Docker containers running on my little Pi:
  • Traefik - an easy-to-use reverse proxy solution so that I can access the different container UIs by using https://containername.skypeoptimizer.com, instead of http://192.168.1.x:somerandomport. It also simplifies certificate management, since I only have to do it once in Traefik with a wildcard cert, rather than on every container.
  • Portainer - a GUI for container management, so I don't have to remember specific commands
  • Pihole - a DNS blackhole for ads. Blocks ads for all devices on my internal network. Tidbit: its currently blocking almost 50% of my total DNS queries!
  • Radarr/Sonarr/Jackett - *cough cough* media management
  • Unifi Controller - manages my amazing-how-did-I-live-before-this wifi infrastructure
  • NOIP - publishes my ever-changing public IP address to Noip.com.
  • PowerShellPi - Runs PowerShell scripts
It was the last one that took me the most work to get going. While there are several published PowerShell Docker containers for Linux, there didn't seem to be any that would work with the ARM processors inside the Raspberry Pi. 

After much trial-and-error (story of my life), I finally managed to build a working Docker image that works with the Raspberry Pi. I used some of the bits from this TechNet blog to get the right commands, but had to make some modifications for it to work on the latest Raspberry Pi version. 

I'm using this base image to build other images that run simple scripts on a schedule. For example, I've got one that checks my public IP, and updates an Azure DNS record when it changes. It does the same thing as the NOIP one, but its something that's fully under my control.

For those who are interested, the base image is available on https://hub.docker.com under kenlasko/powershellpi. The DockerFile used to build this image is shown below (since I haven't figured out how to display it on Docker Hub yet).

# PowerShell on Raspberry Pi
#
# Version 1.0

FROM raspbian/stretch

LABEL maintainer="Ken.Lasko@gmail.com"

RUN sudo apt-get update
# Install libraries necessary for PowerShell
RUN sudo apt-get install --no-install-recommends -y libunwind8 libicu57 libcurl4-openssl-dev cron
# Get the latest released PS module
RUN wget https://github.com/PowerShell/PowerShell/releases/download/v6.0.4/powershell-6.0.4-linux-arm32.tar.gz
# Make PowerShell directory and install PS module
RUN mkdir ~/powershell && tar -xvf ./powershell-6.0.4-linux-arm32.tar.gz -C ~/powershell && sudo ln -s ~/powershell/pwsh /usr/bin/pwsh && sudo ln -s ~/powershell/pwsh /usr/local/bin/powershell
# Remove install files after completion
RUN sudo rm -rf /var/lib/apt/lists && rm powershell-6.0.4-linux-arm32.tar.gz
# Install PS modules (Azure auth and DNS modules shown as examples)
#RUN ~/powershell/pwsh -Command Install-Module -Name AzureRM.Profile.Netcore -Force && ~/powershell/pwsh -Command Install-Module -Name AzureRM.Dns.Netcore -Force


My next move is to get a few more Raspberry Pis to create a Docker Swarm to automatically load-balance my containers, just like a wee little datacenter!

This is for you, Pat!

Tuesday, September 18, 2018

Skype Optimizer JSON Interface Now Available

For people who like to have more control over how dial rules are implemented but want to leverage my vast database of worldwide dial rules, I have implemented a JSON interface for the Skype Optimizer.

The interface will return all the dial rules for a given country in JSON format, which can then be used in your own scripts or application. 

To access the API, you simply construct the URL to correspond to the correct representation for the desired country. The base URL for the JSON interface starts with:

https://www.ucdialplans.com/queryapi/

You then add specific options as query strings. For NANPA countries like US, Canada and many Caribbean countries, use the following:
Query String
Data Value
Required?
countrycode
1
Yes
npa
3-digit integer
Yes
nxx
3-digit integer
Yes
natscope
national/uscan/all
No (defaults to national)
sevendigit
yes/no;1/0;true/false
No (defaults to no)
apikey
16-character alphanumeric
Yes

For an example location in Chicago, where we want to treat both US and Canada numbers as national numbers, use the following:
https://www.ucdialplans.com/queryapi/?countrycode=1&npa=312&nxx=226&natscope=uscan&apikey=yourapikeyhere

For any other country, the available query strings are as follows:
Query String
Data Value
Required?
countrycode
1-3 digit integer value
Yes
areacode
1-6 digit integer value
Most countries
carriercode
1-3 digit integer valueSome countries
apikey
16-character alphanumeric
Yes

For example, to return the dial rules for London, UK use the following URL:
https://www.ucdialplans.com/queryapi/?countrycode=44&areacode=20&apikey=yourapikeyhere
The results will look something like this, when you parse it through a JSON formatter:

One way to use this data is in your own personal PowerShell script. Below is an example that will pull down the dial rules for 312-226 in Chicago:
$DialPlan = "https://www.ucdialplans.com/queryapi/?countrycode=1&npa=312&nxx=226&apikey=abc1234567890xyz"
$JSON = Invoke-RestMethod -Method Get -Uri $DialPlan
Once you've got the JSON data, you can return specific elements simply by "following the path", as it were:
PS C:\> $JSON.data.routes

local         : {@{pattern=^\+1((872([^01]\d\d))|(847([^01]\d\d))...
tollfree      : @{pattern=^\+18(00|8\d|77|66|55|44|33|22)\d{7}$}premium       : @{pattern=^\+1(900|976)[2-9]\d{6}$}national      : @{pattern=^\+1(?!(24[26]|26[48]|284|345|441|473|649|664|721|[67]58|767|784|8[024]9|86[89]|876|900|976))                [2-9]\d\d[2-9]\d{6}$}international : @{pattern=^\+((1(?!(900|976))[2-9]\d\d[2-9]\d{6})|([2-9]\d{6,14}))}service       : @{pattern=^\+?([2-9]11)$}

You can get as specific as you want:
PS C:\> $JSON.data.normrules.national.pattern^1?([2-9]\d\d[2-9]\d{6})\d*(\D+\d+)?$PS C:\> $JSON.data.routes.international.pattern^\+((1(?!(900|976))[2-9]\d\d[2-9]\d{6})|([2-9]\d{6,14}))
For elements that could have multiple values, such as local routes, you have to write it a little bit differently (note the square brackets):
PS C:\> $JSON.data.routes.local[0].pattern^\+1((872([^01]\d\d))|(847([^01]\d\d))|(815(20[^189]|21[^1378]|22[01348]|23[067]|24[125]|25[02458]|26[^2469]|27[^035]|28[07]|29[0345]|30[^39]|31[03478]|32[^39]|33[^2569]|34[^0]|35[^089]|36[1346]|37[^5689]|38[23568]|40[^026]|41[^149]|42[^089....
You must also include a valid API key. For testing purposes, I've created a demo API key that anybody can use.
abc1234567890xyz
The output will be obfuscated to deter abuse, but is otherwise valid JSON.  Please give it a try, and if you feel there is a place for this in your company or application, please contact me through the usual channels.

I have to give thanks to longtime SfB/Teams MVP Jonathan McKinney for pushing me to do this, and to help test it along the way. Beers are inbound!

Wednesday, June 6, 2018

Teams Direct Routing Now Supported in the Skype Optimizer

Since Microsoft made Teams Direct Routing available as a preview, I've been working to modify the Skype Optimizer codebase to support it. Finally, after weeks of coding and testing, I'm pleased to announce that the Skype Optimizer now fully supports Teams Direct Routing.



O365-native PSTN calling is only available for a small number of countries. A lot of companies have held off from migrating to the cloud until there was some way of allowing PSTN calling for users in the other countries that aren't supported in O365. Direct Routing allows customers basically anywhere in the world to move their users to Office 365 while allowing telephony connections to their provider of choice via on-premises PSTN gateways.

Direct Routing in Teams works almost exactly the same as it does in Skype for Business on-premises. The only differences are in how normalization rules are handled (which I talked about in an earlier post), and there is no support for trunk translation rules. This means that if you have to do any manipulation of numbers before sending to another PBX or the PSTN, you will have to do it at the PSTN gateway level.

There are still voice policies, routes and PSTN usages that are combined together to provide nearly limitless ways to control how phone calls are routed in your company. The difference is really just in the name of the PowerShell commands, as shown below.

Skype for Business
Teams Direct Routing
Get-CsVoicePolicy
Get-CsOnlineVoiceRoutingPolicy
Get-CsVoiceRoute
Get-CsOnlineVoiceRoute
Get-CsPstnUsage
Get-CsOnlinePstnUsage

Fortunately, since the underlying concepts are still the same, that means the Skype Optimizer can still provide many of the same features to Teams as with on-prem deployments.  This includes:

  • Class of Service
  • Least-cost/failover routing
  • Extension ranges
Skype Optimizer features not currently supported in Teams include:
  • Location-based routing
  • Selective caller-ID blocking
  • Premium number blocking via Announcement service
  • Call Park
The PowerShell script generated by the Skype Optimizer builds on the same codebase used for Skype for Business Online scripts. The only prerequisite is that you have already paired one or more PSTN gateways to your Office 365 tenant using the New-CsOnlinePSTNGateway command.  If you haven't done this step, the Skype Optimizer script will only create normalization rules that will apply to both Skype for Business Online and Teams. 

Please try out the new functionality and let me know if you experience any issues.

Monday, March 12, 2018

The Evolution of the Skype Optimizer: From Locally-Run VBScript to Azure Web App

I was recently amazed when I realized the seeds of what is now the Skype Optimizer was created 10 YEARS AGO, back when Office Communications Server 2007 R2 was starting to make headway in the unified communications space.

The Beginning

The genesis of the program grew out of a need to know when to strip the +1 from a North American local number and when not to. Rather than rehash the creation myth, you can read all about it from one of my earliest blog posts where I announced the Dialing Rule Optimizer to the world (at that time, the 30-odd subscribers to my blog).

The very first version was a straight VBScript that I had to manually input the proper variables and run it by hand. Rather than give the code away, I told people to email me the phone numbers they wanted to get optimized dial rules for.  I would run the script and send them the results, which was a simple text file with either a bunch of regex, or text formatted to be applied to AudioCodes or Dialogic gateways.  Word got around within Microsoft, and I found myself busy sending stuff to various Microsoft consultants.

When Lync 2010 came around, which was in its earliest days known as Communications Server "14", I added the capability to create simple routing rules that consisted of a few lines of PowerShell code.  I also wrapped the code around a simple UI in something called an HTA (short for HTML application).  It made generating rulesets easier for me, but it was still something that I was running from my local machine.
The earliest known copy of the original Dialing Rule Optimizer. I obtained this from the Smithsonian Museum. The text-only v1.0 has been lost to the sands of time.
I soon figured out that it would be relatively straightforward to move the HTA into an actual web page.  I put the code on a web server hosted by the company I was working for at the time and opened up the tool to the entire world. I actually put this code on the computer that was running our OCS 2007 R2 server!

The very first web-based iteration of the Dialing Rule Optimizer. Note the Communications Server "14" logo on the top-right.

Once Communications Server "14" became Lync 2010, I realized that I could go beyond simple optimized route creation, and modified the Optimizer to create everything required for a simple Enterprise Voice setup for US and Canada deployments.

Shortly after, I realized that I could do the same for other countries as well. The Optimizer interface grew somewhat to accommodate the requirements for different countries.
Dramatic differences abound! Communications Server "14" has changed to "Microsoft Lync". Also, UK dial plans!
I slowly added other countries to the Optimizer. I also added other features such as extension dialing rules, least-cost/failover routing, among many others.

Over time, the back-end code base was starting to become difficult to support. I was using a series of XML files to deal with languages and country-specific dialrules, and the sheer number of them was becoming cumbersome to manage.  I decided to move everything from the company-hosted platform to Amazon Web Services. I built a single Windows VM with SQL Express and ported the XML files to a database. It worked well, but AWS was starting to cost a fair bit to run for a free service. Donations were not keeping pace with costs.

I then discovered that Microsoft MVPs got a monthly allotment of funds in Azure. I immediately moved my infrastructure to Azure, where it ran mostly trouble-free for the next several years.

The Optimizer featureset grew and grew, but the interface was still as ugly as the day I first created it.  One person even suggested it looked like a GeoCities page. Hey, my argument was always that I was not (and am still not) a web developer.


The Modern Era

I decided to try to give the Optimizer a more modern look. I completely re-wrote the front-end code using Notepad++ as my trusty editor.  I replaced the clunky extension builder with a better Javascript framework that emulated an Excel spreadsheet, and made other significant under-the-hood improvements. After much trial and error, I was pleased to unveil the new look.

The website looked modern, clean and easy-to-use.  However, it bugged me that while the site was running in Azure, it was still just a single Windows VM with a local SQL Server instance. It was also costing most of my monthly Azure MVP credits with not a lot of headroom. I decided to try to make the Skype Optimizer simpler and cheaper to manage, figuring that there would probably come a day when I would not be a Microsoft MVP (the horror!!!) and I'd be expected to pay a monthly bill (Oh the humanity!!!).

My first step was to dump the local SQL and move to Azure SQL Database. First, I had to copy the gigabytes of data to my SQL instance.  I opted to use transactional replication, which would allow me to keep both my local and Azure-based SQL instances up-to-date while I tested things out.  It turned out to be ridiculously easy. I had to modernize my code a bit to allow it to still read/write data to Azure SQL, but this was pretty straightforward as well.

With that hurdle out of the way, I looked at a few different ways to further reduce my costs and administrative burden. 

Docker Containers

I'd heard about Docker containers and how it was an easy way to reduce the overall complexity and costs over a traditional virtual machine.  I installed Docker on my home machine and started messing around with it. I used the Image2Docker tool to make a copy of my Windows VM-based website and installed it locally.  I had to do quite a bit of modifications to my dockerfile to support some of the added features that Image2Docker didn't capture, but after a while, I managed to make the Skype Optimizer work in a Docker container. 

Moving my newly-created container to Azure wasn't too much work, but there was definitely a learning curve involved. It started up fine, and I pointed my DNS entries to the container and away we went!  However, all was not perfect:
  1. My container stopped working a few times over the span of a few weeks. Troubleshooting this proved to be nearly impossible due to the nature of Docker containers and how you lose the previous state every time you restart it. Either that or I just don't know how these things really work.
  2. Making code modifications wasn't simple either. I'd have to make the change in my local Docker image and publish that image to Azure. The startup process took 5-10 minutes, which was probably due to how I built my container.  I looked at ways to improve the startup time, but it was already eating up lots of my time.
  3. The costs to run the container wasn't much cheaper than a full VM
Because of those reasons, I decided that Docker containers weren't well-suited to my needs and I finally turned to....

Azure Web App

All the back-end code changes I made to the Optimizer to support both Azure SQL Database and Docker containers actually had an unexpected side benefit: it allowed me to easily move the Optimizer to Azure Web App, which is Azure's web hosting framework.

To make the process of managing this easier, I finally moved away from Notepad++ as a development environment and embraced Visual Studio. Visual Studio made it trivial to take my entire website and migrate it to Azure. I had a few challenges with making my code-signing certificate work, but in the end it all worked flawlessly. 

The Skype Optimizer has been running as an Azure Web App for several months now. Its extremely reliable, simple to manage, and about 3 times cheaper to run than the original Windows VM. 

The Future

So, there you have it. The entire history of the Skype Optimizer posted here for posterity. Where do things go from here? Well, with Microsoft Teams eventually taking over the Enterprise Voice role from Skype for Business, I may decide to look into what it would take to turn the Skype Optimizer into a Teams Direct Routing and Calling Plans management platform. 

Until then, I will continue to keep updating the Skype Optimizer to make sure Skype and Teams administrators worldwide have a single place to get accurate, up-to-date dialing rules for every country in the world.


Friday, March 9, 2018

Edge Topology Replication Failures Caused by Mismatched Windows Updates

While getting a new Skype for Business edge server ready for production, I generally make sure all the latest Windows Updates are applied. I was doing exactly this for the company I work for (Nectar Services Corp).  Everything seemed to go just fine, but I noticed the edge server's replication status was showing as False when I ran Get-CsManagementStoreReplicationStatus.  The usual procedure of running Invoke-CsManagementStoreReplication -ReplicaFQDN servername did nothing. Even wiping out the C:\RtcReplicaRoot\xds-replica folder as described in this dusty old blog post didn't make a difference.

The Event Logs on the front-end server that was the master replication partner showed these fairly frequent error events:
Log Name:      Lync Server
Source:        LS File Transfer Agent Service
Date:          2/22/2018 10:01:29 AM
Event ID:      1046
Task Category: (1121)
Level:         Error
Keywords:      Classic
User:          N/A
Computer:      FRONTENDSERVERNAME.contoso.com
Description:
Skype for Business Server 2015, File Transfer Agent cannot send replication data to Replica Replicator Agent on Edge
Edge machine: EDGESERVERNAME.contoso.com
Exception: System.ServiceModel.EndpointNotFoundException: There was no endpoint listening at https://edgeservername.contoso.com:4443/ReplicationWebService that could accept the message. This is often caused by an incorrect address or SOAP action. See InnerException, if present, for more details. ---> System.Net.WebException: Unable to connect to the remote server ---> System.Net.Sockets.SocketException: No connection could be made because the target machine actively refused it 192.168.1.2:4443
I could reach the edge server's replication web service URL via port 4443 as described in the event log, so there wasn't a firewall issue or an issue with the web service that I could determine.

The edge server was also throwing errors, saying that it hadn't heard from any of the replication servers in a while and its feelings were very hurt.
Log Name:      Lync Server
Source:        LS Replica Replicator Agent Service
Date:          2/22/2018 12:04:32 PM
Event ID:      3045
Task Category: (3003)
Level:         Error
Keywords:      Classic
User:          N/A
Computer:      EDGESERVERNAME.contoso.com
Description:
The replication synthetic transaction has not been updated in a significant time period.
Time since the last update: 01.03:43:09
Cause: The Master Replicator Agent has not updated the replication transaction document in a significant time period.
Resolution:
If other replicas are experiencing similar issues, check the Master Replicator Agent and File Transfer Agent service health.  Verify access to the DFS files shares and replica file shares
The weird thing was that replication WAS working prior to me installing the final batch of Windows Updates. So, it seemed to make sense to uninstall each of the last Windows Update until things start working again. Unfortunately, after uninstalling those updates, along with a bunch of other ones in an increasingly desperate attempt to find the issue, the issue still persisted. Back to the drawing board.

I noticed that I was unable to copy binary files to the edge server via RDP copy/paste. Text files would copy fine, but any other filetype would cause the RDP session to crash with "Unexpected Server Error".  This seemed to be related to the replication issue, because this also worked fine prior to installing those updates. This is a good time to note that to access the edge server, I had to first RDP to a front-end server, then RDP to the edge from there, because the firewall was blocking all other access. This would prove to be relevant later.

I went as far as uninstalling and reinstalling Skype for Business along with all the supporting components, but it STILL didn't work.

Frustration level: STRATOSPHERIC

Finally, I nuked the entire edge server from orbit (It's the only way to be sure) and had the edge server rebuilt from scratch. Once again, replication worked.

End of story, right? Wrong. I had to figure out what the issue was, so I re-applied each of the original suspected updates until the issue re-appeared. And re-appear it did, along with the RDP copy/paste issue. The offensive update that caused the issue was 4072650, which is vaguely described as Hyper-V integration components update for Windows virtual machines. The description wasn't much help, but it certainly had an effect. Once again, removing that patch didn't make the issue disappear.

Finally, I checked to see if the front-end servers had this truly despicable update, AND THEY DIDN'T.  It was buried in Windows Update as an optional update, which weren't being automatically downloaded and installed. On a hunch, I installed the update (no restart required, thankfully), and VOILA, replication started working again, and I could copy/paste files between front-ends and edge via RDP.

So, this vague Windows Update was the source of all my issues. Sigh... Presumably, this would only show up in the following circumstances:

  • Using Hyper-V hosted virtual machines
  • Running Windows 2012 R2
  • Update 4072650 is installed on some VMs but not all

TL;DR version

If you're having replication errors on your edge server, and are getting LS File Transfer Agent Service error 1046 on your master replication server, then make sure that all front-end and edge servers have Update 4072650 if you see it applied on any one server.